4. Data collection and analysis


  • Coordinate data collection and analysis responsibilities across the programme.
  • Select a range of appropriate and participatory data collection methods.
  • Conduct timely data analysis.
  • Ensure timely management review of monitoring results and correct any issues arising.

After monitoring and evaluation systems are designed and indicators have been established, the Monitoring and Evaluation Coordinator should coordinate data collection and analysis. This will involve coordinating with a range of staff across the programme including:

  • field staff or Monitoring and Evaluation officers: may be directly involved in data collection
  • project managers: will be involved in providing information on activities as well as reviewing monitoring results
  • senior managers: will need to review results.

The Monitoring and Evaluation Coordinator should ensure that all team members are aware of their roles and responsibilities in relation to such monitoring activities, and provide central coordination.

CARE International Members will also conduct monitoring visits from time to time. Refer to Annex 9.9 Sample terms of reference for a monitoring visit.

A range of appropriate and participatory data collection methods should be employed in monitoring and evaluation activities. A brief summary of available methods and tools that can be used in monitoring are listed in section 4.2.1.

4.2.1 Participatory data collection methods

Available methods Tools and ‘how to’ guides
Key informant
The good enough guide, Tool 5
IFRC Guidelines for emergency assessment, Chapter 7
Focus groups The good enough guide, Tool 6
IFRC Guidelines for emergency assessment, Chapter 7
Direct observation The good enough guide, Tool 9
Surveys The good enough guide, Tool 7
Indicators The good enough guide, Tool 10
Feedback and complaints systems The good enough guide, Tool 12
A guide to the HAP Standard
Participatory Rural Appraisal methods, e.g. mapping, seasonal calendars, timelines, proportional piling ALNAP The participation handbook
The good enough guide

More information on available methods can be found in Chapter 14 AssessmentChapter 32 Quality and accountability, and Chapter 30 Participation.

In addition to the participatory data collection methods in section 4.2.1, monitoring systems should also employ methods that assist with internal review and monitoring of management systems including:

  • team review meetings
  • progress reviews against logframes and deliverables
  • analysis of support systems including status of procurement schedules
  • spot finance checks and expenditure reviews.

Monitoring data is only useful if it is analysed and used to improve programme quality and quickly address any problems that emerge. The Monitoring and Evaluation Coordinator must ensure that all monitoring data collected is analysed and presented in a timely and user-friendly way. In doing so, the quality of information should also be considered.

4.3.1 Quality of information

  • Accuracy and validity: Does the information show the true situation?
  • Relevance: Is the information relevant to user interests?
  • Timeliness: Is the information available in time to make necessary decisions?
  • Credibility: Is the information believable?
  • Attribution: Are results due to the project or to something else?
  • Significance: Is the information important?

Representativeness: Does the information represent only the target group, or also the wider population

Once available, the appropriate managers must review and act on monitoring data. This is a fundamental component of CARE’s accountability. To have available information of emerging problems and not address them is a serious breach of our accountability, so this process of review and action is an extremely important part of the overall monitoring and evaluation system.

Project managers must routinely review all monitoring data relating to their project and take actions to address any issues emerging. Country Office senior managers must review programme-level data that gives an overview of the overall performance of the emergency response, as well as any project-specific issues of particular concern. The role of the Monitoring and Evaluation Coordinator is to ensure that managers have access to available data and analysis in a timely and user-friendly manner, and that any particular issues of concern are drawn to the attention of senior managers immediately.