5. What to do: Integration with other sectors
There is a strong argument for always integrating WASH into a shelter programme. This does not necessarily mean that WASH has to be seen as another, stand-alone, sector; but it does mean that shelter expertise has to securely integrated into the shelter team. A house is not complete without a toilet. Rainwater collection may be a natural and logical extension of a housing project that that has new CGI sheeting. These should not be seen as mere ‘add-ons’ to a shelter project and they require the full WASH package of hygiene promotion and community orientation especially in communities where new technologies might be introduced. Shelter and WASH and natural partners.
Integration with livelihood programmes should also be considered. This may be especially relevant in a self-recovery programme where, for example, a cash component may not be enough to complete a house and a livelihood component can help to complement the shortfall. With all sector integration, care should be taken to harmonise the selection process to avoid ‘double-dipping’ – the inclusion of a family in both shelter and livelihood programme, when another family may be excluded from both.
For each of the response outcomes described above, there may be a number of different delivery options. Some of these are described here. The options, or modalities, will vary from one context to another and will be informed by the shelter strategy. There may be very different intents in the immediate emergency response when the priority is to get families under some kind of dignified shelter, in comparison to the longer-term recovery which may include DRR and technical training. The location of the affected population close to their original location or considerable displaced will be a major factor in determining a shelter strategy.